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Background color shows metal—metalloid—nonmetal trend in the periodic table Structure and bonding hcp and fcc close-packing of spheres The atoms of metallic substances are typically arranged in one of three common crystal structures , namely body-centered cubic bcc , face-centered cubic fcc , and hexagonal close-packed hcp. In bcc, each atom is positioned at the center of a cube of eight others. In fcc and hcp, each atom is surrounded by twelve others, but the stacking of the layers differs. Some metals adopt different structures depending on the temperature. This provides the ability of metallic substances to easily transmit heat and electricity. While this flow of electrons occurs, the solid characteristic of the metal is produced by electrostatic interactions between each atom and the electron cloud. This type of bond is called a metallic bond. The transition metals such as iron , copper , zinc , and nickel are slower to oxidize because they form a passivating layer of oxide that protects the interior. Others, like palladium , platinum and gold , do not react with the atmosphere at all.

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Rock art records an ancient blast Rock art records an ancient blast Astronomers believe they’ve found the first North American record of the a. Monday, June 5, This rock carving may celebrate the appearance of a supernova seen in The star is the large rayed circle right of center.

This is a Flexaret VII Twin Lens Reflex camera made between the years – 71 by Meopta, a camera company based out of the former Czechoslovakia.

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Radiocarbon dating

December 21, History was tampered with? Nothing of the sorts. Why then the world history and especially its chronology were tampered with?

Vermont 10 (Kuda Photography)BY BRIAN LIBBY. For a recent Portland Tribunecolumn, I had the opportunity to visit the new Vermont 10 project in Southwest Portland’s Hillsdale neighborhood. To me it’s a nice little urban infill project in a part of Portland that is .

When I asked for the discount membership which constituted my doing the work, she told me in a very insulting email that that wasn’t going to happen. Besides representing to me that her club members had a average net worth of 10 million dollars, she failed to represent that her company is owned by GE Management Group Boca Raton Florida which shares a address and phone number with Great Expectations. I had told her that I had been a member there before I joined.

Also, Precision Dating and Great Expectations share a database. Besides being unprofessional and failing to provide the level of service and quality of member which she alleges, she is insulting and condescending. In searching both the male and female profiles in her databank, it is obvious that her members do not average 10 million dollars in net worth.

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This is going to be big – think spacetime plus one. Features We put the rocket in space science software Universal Search New dynamic user-optimized interface, with “Universal Search” for objects, Starry Night files, SkyGuide references, options, events, and more. High Performance Graphics The incredibly rich and detailed Starry Night software OpenGL graphics that have set the industry standard for excellence in astronomy software. Updated Messier Catalog An updated Messier catalog with new breathtaking high resolution images of your favourite star clusters, nebulae, and galaxies.

Analemma Simulations The Sun’s analemma can now be drawn accurately on any planet’s surface.

Creationist Geologic Time Scale: Should the scientific community continue to fight rear-guard skirmishes with creationists, or insist that “young-earthers” defend their model in toto? Introduction This manuscript proposes a new approach for science’s battle against the rising influence in America of pseudo-science and the Creationist movement. The framework of Creationist Bible-based earth history, focusing on Genesis and the Noachian flood, can be assembled into a single geologic time scale Figure 1 , enlarged by addition of many geologic facts, difficult for Creationists to explain.

Figure 1 is an abbreviated version of the time scale outlined in the following paragraph which was redrawn and published by the American Scientist. Some of the items are so absurd that all but the most dedicated fundamentalists will see the overall picture as scientific nonsense, even bordering on humor, a most rare commodity in Creationist literature. Science, rather than using its traditional defensive approach of item-by-item rebuttal of Creationist attacks, needs to take the offensive by challenging Creationists to defend their “scientific” view of earth history as represented by this time scale.

Note that the numbered items in this Time Scale are further expanded in subsequent numbered sections which are keyed to these same numbers. Day 2 – Waters above and waters below. Day 3 – Earth’s crust and plants. Day 4 – Sun, moon, and stars in place.

Osl dating accuracy and precision

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To Jenkins’ Spoiler-Laden Guide to Isaac Asimov Introduction Though perhaps best known throughout the world for his science fiction, Isaac Asimov was also regarded as one of the great explainers of science. His essays exemplified his skill at making complex subjects understandable, and were written in an unformal style, liberally sprinkled with personal anecdotes that endeared him to a legion of faithful readers. It was all a labor of love; in particular Asimov often remarked that of all his writing, his essays for The Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction were his favorite, despite the fact that he received the lowest word-rate payment for them.

From November to February , an essay of his appeared in the magazine every month, without fail. With the advent of Isaac Asimov’s Science Fiction Magazine in , he began a series of editorials that appeared at the beginning of each issue. In addition he wrote essays and introductions for literally hundreds of magazines, newspapers, books, and trade publications.

Precision Dating

Received Nov 2; Accepted Jan This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.

A less familiar Great Circle pattern is one drawn by a series of spots, the series of subpoints directly under a speeding, passing astronomical body, such as the ancient Mars or by a meteor. This type involves several matters, such as I the pathway of the astronomical body, in our case the pathway of Mars, 2 its velocity in space, and 3 the Earth’s spin rate during the time span of the flyby. A meteor making a close flyby has insignificant mass, but Mars, with 11 percent of the Earth’s mass, would inflict sudden damage on a global scale.

In a Great Circle pattern made by the subpoints on the Earth directly under Mars, Mars is at first distant, beyond the Moon. And finally, it recedes back beyond the Moon’s orbit into space. In the case of Mars, its mass was significant.

Planetary mass

Data not derived from pure experimental data but partly derived from systematic trends. Value in parentheses [such as 6 ] after the last digit represents uncertainties in a concise form. These uncertainty values represent one standard deviation. By No machine-readable author provided. Own work assumed based on copyright claims.

Ancient kauri provides a measure of late Pleistocene atmospheric 14C. Abstract Robustly testing hypotheses of geographic synchroneity of abrupt and extreme change during the late Pleistocene 60, to 11, years ago requires a level of chronological precision often lacking in ice, marine and terrestrial sequences.

Using 14C in the marine Cariaco Basin and 10Be preserved in Greenland ice, the kauri 14C sequence allows us to precisely align sequences across this period. We observe no significant difference between atmospheric and marine 14C records during HE3, suggesting no stratification of surface waters and collapse in Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation AMOC. Instead our results support recent evidence for a weakened AMOC across at least two millennia of the glacial period.

Our work adds to a growing body of literature confirming that Heinrich events are not the cause of stadial cooling and suggests changes in the AMOC were not the primary driver of antiphase temperature trends between the hemispheres.

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In the most precise case, that of the Earth itself, the mass is known in terms of solar masses to twelve significant figures: It is impossible to “weigh” a planet, and much less the Sun, against the sort of mass standards which are used in the laboratory. On the other hand, the orbits of the planets give a great range of observational data as to the relative positions of each body, and these positions can be compared to their relative masses using Newton’s law of universal gravitation with small corrections for General Relativity where necessary.

That matched the symbolism in the Bible that the “bright and morning star” represents Christ Rev. That opened up this entire study, which proved incredibly fruitful. It led to the discovery of several sacred calendars, one of which tracks the planet Venus. Each of these calendars has designated holy days, and on the Venus Calendar, it turned out that Sun 3 Apr 33 was the one holy day in a day cycle which represents resurrection. That discovery was not only confirming evidence of the date of the Resurrection, which is still in dispute, but also for the identification of the original Quetzalcoatl as being Jesus Christ.

On the Hebrew calendar, it is well known that the Savior was crucified at Passover, at the same time that Passover lambs were sacrificed. It is not so well known that there is a day on the Hebrew calendar for offering a sheaf of the firstfruits of barley from the ground. That day called the Waving of the Sheaf represents resurrection in general, and of Jesus Christ in particular, being the firstfruits from the ground 1 Cor

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The Bespoke Audio Company preamplifier The process of reviewing audio equipment is well documented. That said, some of us are more flexible and learn how to get into the ears of the typical listener who would like the device under test. All of this goes out of the window when dealing with a product like the Bespoke Audio preamplifier, because there is no typical listener. The clue is in the name: Bespoke Audio builds preamplifiers using custom in-house wound multi-tapped and shielded attenuation transformers, built to your specifications to match the gain structure of your system, should you so wish.

Measurement of N, the number of 14 C atoms currently in the sample, allows the calculation of t, the age of the sample, using the equation above. The above calculations make several assumptions, such as that the level of 14 C in the atmosphere has remained constant over time. The calculations involve several steps and include an intermediate value called the “radiocarbon age”, which is the age in “radiocarbon years” of the sample: Radiocarbon ages are still calculated using this half-life, and are known as “Conventional Radiocarbon Age”.

Since the calibration curve IntCal also reports past atmospheric 14 C concentration using this conventional age, any conventional ages calibrated against the IntCal curve will produce a correct calibrated age. When a date is quoted, the reader should be aware that if it is an uncalibrated date a term used for dates given in radiocarbon years it may differ substantially from the best estimate of the actual calendar date, both because it uses the wrong value for the half-life of 14 C, and because no correction calibration has been applied for the historical variation of 14 C in the atmosphere over time.

The different elements of the carbon exchange reservoir vary in how much carbon they store, and in how long it takes for the 14 C generated by cosmic rays to fully mix with them. This affects the ratio of 14 C to 12 C in the different reservoirs, and hence the radiocarbon ages of samples that originated in each reservoir.

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